Tamil Nadu for Tamils Movement : The first "Tamil Nadu for Tamils" Conference was held in December 10, 1939. The movement was for an independent Dravida Nadu (South India which included Tamil Nadu) separate from India. But through a law enacted in 1963, the then Congress Government led by Prime Minister Pandit. Jawaharlal Nehru, banned parties and individuals demanding independence (freedom or separatism or secession) from India. DMK abandoned the movement after the law ame into effect.
Some of the other Dravida parties like Patali Makkal Katchi (PMK) headed by Dr. Ramadoss and Tamil National Movement (Tamil Desiya Iyakkam) headed by Pazha Nedumaran also demanded something just short of total independence from India. They demanded a Tamil Nation within India with maximum devolution of powers. Some other organisations like Tamil Nadu Viduthalai Padai (TNLA) headed by Maran, Tamil Nadu Viduthalai Padai headed by Ilavarasan and Tamil Nadu Retrieval Troops (TNRT), waged armed struggle for an independent Tamil Nation.
Formation of DMK: One of the earliest regional party formed was 'South Indian Welfare Association', founded in 1916. The party came to be known as 'Justice Party' after the name of its English-language daily. Again the party was renamed as 'Dravidar Kazhagam' in 1944 by Justice.E.V. Ramaswamy, popularly known as "Periyar". Dravidar Kazhagam, which was a non-political party, was demanding the formation of an independent state called 'Dravida Nadu'. But due to the differences between the two leaders of the party, E.V.Ramaswamy and C.N.Anna Durai, the party was split. C.N.Anna Durai, later formed the party 'Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam' (DMK).
DMK into Politics : DMK entered into politics in 1962. The Anti-Hindi agitations in mid-1960s made the DMK more popular and more powerful political force in TamilNadu. DMK routed the Congress in 1967 Elections and took control of the state Government, thereby ending the strength of Congress Party in Tamilnadu. C.N. Annadurai became the DMK's first Chief Minister.
After C.N.Anna Durai's death, M.Karunanidhi took over as the party president and Chief Minister in 1969.
Formation of AIADMK :
Karunanidhi's leadership was challenged by by M.G. Ramachandran, popularly known as MGR. M.G. Ramachandran was a very popular hero from the Tamil film industry. He was a Congress man and later joined DMK. MGR became the tresurer DMK when Karunanidhi took over as Chief Minister. He wanted the financial details of the party to be publicised which enraged the leadership of DMK and in 1972, MGR was expelled from the party. MGR formed a new party named Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) in 1972 and the party was later renamed as All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK).
AIADMK became the only powerful opponent of DMK.